Descubra as novidades referentes a notícias jurídicas que afetam o setor da HipoGes. Mudanças na legislação que influenciem diretamente o desenvolvimento da nossa atividade.
Medidas extraordinárias de proteção em consequência do COVID 19:
A Moratória Bancária – Prorrogação
No dia 16 de Junho, foi publicado em DR o Decreto-Lei nº 26/2020, o qual altera as medidas excecionais de proteção dos créditos das famílias, empresas, instituições particulares de solidariedade social e demais entidades da economia social.
A pandemia da doença COVID-19 provocou impactos significativos nos rendimentos de muitas famílias, na atividade das empresas e das entidades do setor social, suscetíveis de criar potenciais constrangimentos na capacidade de cumprimento pontual das suas obrigações.
Por essa razão, o Governo adotou, através do DL 10-J/2020, de 26 de Março , uma moratória geral de cumprimento de obrigações perante o sistema bancário, aumentando a liquidez e a tesouraria imediata dos beneficiários através do diferimento temporário do momento do cumprimento dessas obrigações. Este diploma estabeleceu também um regime especial de garantias pessoais do Estado e um regime especial de garantia mútua, que atendem à excecionalidade e temporalidade do contexto.
A evolução da atividade económica, a necessidade de apoiar a recuperação económica das empresas e famílias nacionais, e a experiência decorrente da aplicação do diploma recomendam que o mesmo seja atualizado.
As principais linhas orientadoras da atualização deste diploma passam pela extensão da vigência da moratória, pelo alargamento do universo de potenciais beneficiários e ainda pelo alargamento do âmbito das operações de crédito que à mesma poderão ficar sujeitas.
O prazo de vigência da moratória é prorrogado de forma genérica até 31 de março de 2021. As entidades beneficiárias que tenham aderido à moratória ficam automaticamente abrangidas pelo período adicional do diploma, exceto quando comuniquem a sua oposição até ao dia 20 de setembro de 2020. As famílias, empresas e demais entidades beneficiárias que ainda não tenham aderido à moratória, mas o pretendam fazer, devem comunicar a sua intenção às instituições até ao dia 30 de junho de 2020.
O regime passa a ser aplicável também a cidadãos que não tenham residência em Portugal, abrangendo assim os cidadãos emigrantes.
Em acréscimo, estabelece que os fatores de quebra de rendimentos podem verificar-se, não apenas no mutuário, mas também em qualquer dos membros do seu agregado familiar, prevendo um novo fator de elegibilidade associado à quebra comprovada de rendimento global do agregado de pelo menos 20 %, de forma a proteger mutuários que não se enquadrem nas outras situações já abrangidas.
A atualização do diploma prevê ainda a ampliação da moratória a todos os contratos de crédito hipotecário, bem como ao crédito aos consumidores para finalidade de educação, incluindo para formação académica e profissional.
O diploma contempla a clarificação de que ficam abrangidos todos os créditos bonificados e que a aplicação da moratória não dá origem a qualquer penalização a este respeito.
MEASURES OVER LEASES TO FIGHT THE IMPACT OF COVID -19
Among the new regulations issued in the last month to fight against the impact of the COVID 19 in Spain, on 1 April 2020, the Government approved the Royal Decree-Law 11/2020 that regulates urgent additional measures in the social and economic field to confront COVID-19 which also amends some of the measures adopted in the RDL 8/2020 in order to correct and adjust a few issues that had raised doubts in that RDL 8/2020.
This RDL 11/2020 includes among other new measures for the moratorium or reduction of the rent for individuals renting their principal residence and must have been entered into subject to Law 29/1994 of 24 November 1994, on Urban Leases (“LAU”) who are in a position of economic vulnerability caused by COVID-19. Therefore, this new measure will not be applicable to (i) any lease over properties that are not the principal residence, (ii) those leases which even being the principal residence, the lessee is not in a situation of economic vulnerability; or (iii) those parties that had previously reached an agreement for the deferment or partial or total write-off of the rent.
For these purposes, according to the RDL an individual will be considered to be in a position of economic vulnerability if it complies all of the following conditions:
- The lessee has become unemployed or has had their work reduced by a temporary layoff (ERTE) or their hours reduced for care reasons or has suffer a loss in its income or in the income of the whole family unit, in the month preceding the month of the moratorium, being below three times the monthly public multi-purpose income indicator (IPREM) (this limit will be adjusted taking into account factors such as the number dependent child in the family unit, single-parent families or disabilities, among others).
- The rent plus the costs of basic utilities are equal to 35% or more of the family unit’s net income.
- The lessee or any of the members of its family unit are not owners or usufructuary of a home in Spain available for its use (there are a few exceptions relating to inheritance or divorce or inaccessibility where any family members are disabled).
In the event that a lessee complies with all the requirements above and therefore, is in a position of economic vulnerability, he may request the application of the following measures:
- Moratorium on rent paymentsThe lessee may request the lessor for a rent deferral or reduction, within a period of one month since the publication of this RDL (i.e. 2 April 2020), under the following rules:
- If the lessor is a public housing company or holds more than 10 urban properties:
The tenant may request deferral or forgiveness of all or part of the rent, the terms of the moratorium are, firstly, subject to an agreement between the parties. If there is no agreement between the parties, the landlord, within a period of seven business days, must choose between the following two alternatives:
(i). a 50% reduction of the rental income during the period of the state of emergency and up to four months thereafter if the tenant remains in a vulnerable situation; or
(ii). defer the payment of the rent during the period of the state of emergency, and the following monthly instalments, extendable one by one (while the tenant is under economic vulnerability situation) up to a maximum of four months, with no penalty or interest.
This deferral is automatically applied from the next monthly instalment and will be recovered through splitting rent instalments once the tenant has overcome the situation or a maximum period of four months have passed since the end of the state of emergency (whichever occurs first). The defer payment will split over three years following the time period mentioned and while the agreement remains in force.
- If the lessor is anyone other than those mentioned in (a): the lessor will have to propose, within seven business days to the tenant the measures for deferred or split payment or forgiveness of the rent or other alternative measures. If the parties fail to reach an agreement, the lessee will be allowed to request the financial aid mentioned below.
2. Suspension of eviction.
The RDL 11/2020 provides that after the state of emergency ends, the dispossessions or eviction proceedings from dwellings (not business premises) can be suspended for a maximum period of six months from the date of this RDL. This measure only applies if the lessees are in an economically vulnerable situation as a consequence of the COVID-19 crisis and cannot find alternative housing for themselves and for the persons with whom they live.
This suspension will have to be ordered by the judicial court taking into account a report issued by the social services. The court will inform social services to determine the term of the suspension. For those cases where the date for eviction was not determined before, the suspension will be maintained until the relevant measures are approved by the social services, however such suspension may not go beyond 2 October 2020. In the event that the date for eviction was already determined, it is not clear from RDL 11/2020 what the suspension limit is.
This measure is independent of the kind of landlord affected. In fact, if the landlord considers that he is in a vulnerable situation too, he can prove it to the court so that social services can take it into account when setting the suspension deadline.
3. Mandatory extension of permanent residential lease agreements
Lessees may request an extension of up to six months of those permanent residential lease agreements subject to the LAU whose mandatory or tacit extension (articles 9.1 and 10.1) ends from 2 April 2020 and up to two months after the end of the state of emergency. The landlord must accept this extension unless he can reach a different agreement with the lessee.
This extension is applicable for leases over the principal residence but the RDL does not mention anything about having to be in a situation of economic vulnerability.
4. Approval of an ICO guarantee line.
The RDL approves together with the Spanish official credit institute (Instituto de Crédito Oficial), the issuance by the banks of guarantee lines (totally covered by the State) for a period of up to fourteen years under the following conditions
- the applicant must be a tenant in a vulnerable situation (as defined above);
- the repayment must be up to six years, exceptionally extendable for another four years;
- no expenses or interest will accrue for the applicant;
- the funds can only be used to pay rent; and
- maximum amount of six-monthly instalments.
Obtaining financing in this way lifts the moratorium on rent payments and, where appropriate, triggers the payment of previously deferred amounts in instalments from the next rent payment due.
Finally, the RDL establishes that any lessee who has unduly benefit from any of these measures who does not meet the legal requirements or that seeks to deliberately provoke or maintain the situation of economic vulnerability, will be liable for all damages caused as well as for and costs incurred due to these measures being applied, without prejudice to any other liabilities that the lessee may incur.
 For these purposes costs and basic utilities means the cost of supplies of electricity, gas, gas oil for heating, running water, landline and mobile telecommunications services, and any potential contributions to the owners’ association, all relating to the principal residence and having to be paid by the tenant
 Excluding separate storage rooms or buildings or garages, or a built area measuring over 1,500 square meters